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Friday, October 25, 2013

Austerity in the European Union is WORKING!!! I Told You So!!


        In 2011 and several times since then, I advised the European Union through their European Union Commission Representatives and other politicians to reduce spending, force the interest on their treasury bonds lower, consolidate their debt with one another, form a monetary reserve, tax stocks and bonds, and-- cooperate with one another. You would have thought I had asked every politician and banker in the European Union to run naked over burning hot coals and then take an icy bath. I know that's a funny mental scene, albeit a scary one as well.
        I also asked, nay, demanded that each and every EU country pass a balanced budget amendment and reduce their GDP to Debt by 10% in 2011. Oh, the cries of pain from the wasteful governments (with the exception of Hungary who was playing at times outside the EU rulebook). The intended effect was to reign in government waste, cut programs, increase tax collection, reduce fraud and corruption, and apply those savings back into JOBS through small business loans. And, oh- by the way, regulate every bank, both large and small in the European Union.
         I know that I was asking a lot. But, I have yet to be wrong on any point. Regardless of the naysayers at the NY Times, paying your bills on time and playing nice has its benefits. As a result, new member countries are in negotiations to join the ever expanding European Union. While many prefer to say to European Onion, through cooperation and debt reduction there is less to cry about than there was before, say in 2009 when the bottom dropped out and the PRIG countries were sliding off the cliff. Paying your debts and wise spending builds character and a stronger resolve. Considering the fact that I am 90+ % European, the other 10% being equally split between African and Creek Indian- I know, but aren't we all mixed breeds?
         Greece is paying off its debts and increasing tax collection through the novel way of attaching the tax bill to your utility bills. I can't say I blame them as the tax cheats had nearly brought Greece to its end of membership in the European Union. While the debt is being paid off gradually, money is also gradually being saved and loaned out to small businesses, which are hiring people as I write. Hey, you! Small businesses over there in Europe! Hire someone today! Give them a job, a way to pay their debts, a way to provide for their families.
          Europe has gone through harder times than this, and it is that very history and strong resolve that I depended on when I first suggested Austerity. While Ms. Merkel got in the way too often and became a deterrent to the Unification of the European Union, I still believe that a Unified Europe with its own military sans the United States Armed Forces is the best way to go. Now, if you reign in every bank, and create the monetary reserve under joint supervision, instead of the one-sided one eyed monster that was legislated and coordinated by I believe the Deutschebanke who does not want to be regulated, no sir, not us- we're too good to be regulated. Maybe some under the table dealing has been going on between the ECB and the Deutschebanke that they don't want us to know about? Maybe Interpol can take a look for us? Hint, hint.
         Every economist in the world knows that you must maintain a balanced economy to have economic stability. To have economic stability you must pay your debts. To have money to pay your debts you must collect taxes. To be able to collect taxes you must have people employed or self-employed and paying their fair share of taxes. You must also cut out the many give away programs of socialism. If you don't, the rich get richer and the poor get poorer.

Environmental

         Climate change has actually decreased over the past ten years as I told you it would. The Carbon taxes and your wasteful socialist health care were literally bankrupting your countries. If you provided incentives for alternative fuel vehicles, bicycles, buses, etc. on a wider scale and provided tax credits for everyone who reduced their environmental footprint based on their family's reduction, you could substantially reduce pollution in all of Europe over the next ten years.

Legal Reforms Needed
          Make Human Trafficking  cases DEATH PENALTY cases. Reducing prostitution won't work until you start putting pimps, drug dealers, and human traffickers' necks in the noose. While England has increased the prison time to Life in prison, the law will have very little affect until you provide an alternative means for the victims to testify without having to face their accusers. Maybe a video feed interviewing facility where the witness could securely testify from without being intimidated by their accused abusers? 

         Below is a research paper which I just finished. I plan to write a book about my findings which should be published sometime later this year. Be forewarned: It is not for the faint of heart: 
This material is copyrighted under international law (c) 2013 Winkle Publishing. All Rights Reserved.

 Feminist Economic and Legal  Theories Applied:
The Subordination of Women Through the Modern Slave Trade

Wright State University

Mark Winkle
October 21, 2013


On January 1, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln signed into law the Emancipation Proclamation which declared that slavery of any kind was illegal. On June 25, 1910, the White-Slave Traffic Act better known as the Mann Act was passed. In in its original form, the Mann Act prohibited white slavery and the interstate transport of females for "immoral purposes.” However, due to the societal subordination of women around the world, the Mann Act has proven difficult to enforce. This paper will address many of the reasons why the subordination of women as a societal norm has caused law enforcement around the world to take their time enforcing the violation of women's right to equal treatment under the law. Both Feminist Legal Theory and Feminist Economic Theory come into play because they are both based on the feminist view that the treatment of women in relation to men has not been equal or fair and that
Feminist
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women are not given the same social standing and value as men. As such, the enforcement of sex trade laws against men and the laws concerning acts of prostitution against women are unequally enforced. The dehumanization of women, by enslaving them, for sexual purposes, and thereby violating their natural rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, should not be subject to unequal enforcement of the laws of any nation. This researcher agrees with and extends the arguments that women should be treated as having equal rights under natural law and that women should be afforded the same human rights that men enjoy around the world. These arguments are embedded in the research papers and other forums where research for this paper was conducted and is presented through the means of the cited researcher's facts, statements, and opinions where possible, as academic research on this topic is unfortunately scant. As a result, a variety of other sources were employed to fill in the gaps to create a more thorough research document. First, “Feminist abolitionists hold that it is impossible for women to consent to prostitute, since prostitution dehumanizes and objectifies women. Prostitution is therefore a form of slavery, and since nobody can elect to be a slave, all prostitutes have been trafficked into their condition” (Barry, 1995; Jeffreys, 1997) (Davidson, 2006). “In most countries, to stand any chance of being identified and assisted as a sex slave by the authorities, a migrant woman or girl working in the sex trade needs to demonstrate first that she did not choose or consent to work in prostitution, and second that she has undergone great physical suffering” (Davidson, 2006). Unfortunately, many men would have no problem having sex with a prostitute. However, they would have personal issues with their sister or nieces being prostitutes and sex slaves. This disparity is at the center of the problem. Only a socially corrupt person would prostitute their own relatives or sell them into bondage. Surprisingly, a majority of women become sex slaves (prostitutes) through direct or indirect actions of their own relatives. Whether
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those actions involve sex traffickers, drugs, alcohol, or deception, research has shown that a majority of sex slaves were sexually abused by one or more relatives or friends of their families as a child. The abuse continues as the young woman grows up and the abuse is accepted as “normal” behavior for the abuse victim as they usually have no way out of their living situation.
Furthermore, in a research paper titled, “Does Legalized Prostitution Increase Human Trafficking?,” which applied Feminist Economic Theory, the question was posed that if prostitution was made legal, would the incidences of sexual slavery increase? The response to the question was, “We believe, that under conditions of illegality, a certain share of prostitutes will consist of trafficked individuals, given the difficulties in recruiting individuals willing to voluntarily work in such an illegal market. This share of trafficked prostitutes is likely to fall after legalization” (Cho, Dreher, and Neumayer 2012). Thus, if prostitution was to be made legal, if this research studies conclusions were to be believed, there would be little change in the number of sex trafficked slaves.
However, the results to the research study were just the opposite of what you might expect: “Prior to 2002, Germany only allowed individual, self-employed prostitution without third party involvement. As a result, Germany has one of the most liberal prostitution markets in Europe with about 150,000 tax paying prostitutes. The number of prostitutes in Germany is more than 60 times that of Sweden, which in 1999 outlawed all commercial sex businesses including prostitution. In regards to human sex trafficking, Germany and Sweden both had similar percentages of trafficked sex workers (slaves), regardless of whether prostitution was legal or not” (Dainalova- Trainor and Belser 2006) ( Cho, Dreher, and Neumayer 2012).
Additionally, in her research paper The Relationship between Prostitution and Sex Trafficking: The Case of Sweden and Denmark, Selam Eshete of Lund University in Sweden
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states, “There is high relationship between prostitution and Sexual trafficking. As mentioned on the concept of Sex trafficking, trafficking is done for different purpose especially for labor and sexual exploitation. From total number of trafficking people almost 80% involved for sexual exploitation (Eshete, 2012).
Interestingly enough, this correlates with the numbers cited below in Anaheim, California. In Sweden, a majority of the prostitutes are from foreign countries that were brought in illegally by sex traffickers. Once the women entered the country, they were sold into prostitution by the traffickers who had brought them into Sweden illegally.
Furthermore, in Anaheim, California “in a 1998 study, 88 percent of the prostituted women surveyed stated that they wanted to leave the sex trade industry. In over 100 arrests, most of the women expressed that prostitution was not their career of choice (Farley and Barkan, 1998). The fact that these women did not want to be prostitutes and were coerced or threatened into remaining prostitutes provides them protection under the Mann Act if they were transported across state lines for the purpose of committing illegal sex acts.
However, the law should not require the sex slave to be transported anywhere. Coercing someone to commit an illegal sex act should be the standard for prosecution whether the victim crossed state lines, left the country, or traveled only across the room to commit an illegal sex act. Both state and federal laws in the United States and around the world need to be rewritten to remove the transportation requirement for prosecution of a coerced or forced sex act. By lowering the bar, for prosecution, both interstate and intrastate coerced or forced illegal sex acts would be prosecuted equally and would therefore provide greater protection of women across the board.
Consequently, in her essay “Selling Sex for Visas: Sex Tourism as a Stepping- Stone to
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International Migration,” in the book Global Woman, researcher Denise Brennan argues that, “ not all sex trade in the Dominican Republic is operated by pimps or the drug trade” ...however, she further states that, “these women face rapes, beatings, and arrest (Brennan 2002). She further states, “Of the fifty women I interviewed...only two were not mothers. Typically, these women receive no financial assistance from their children's fathers. I believe that the most decisive factor propelling these women into the sex trade is their status as single mothers” (Brennan 2002).
Considering the fact that if the fathers of the children of these women of Sousa, Dominican Republic were forced to provide financial support for to the mothers of their children, the women would have no reason to become prostitutes and endanger their lives. The unequal economics of the women of Sousa as well as the failure of the government of the Dominican Republic to demand and enforce child support from the fathers of these children are the root of the cause for these women being involved in the sex trade. Prior to moving to Sousa none of them had been involved in the sex trade.
Additionally, in the year 2000, the United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime defined human trafficking in Article 3 as: The recruitment, transportation, transfer harboring, or receipt of persons by means of the threat or the use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of the position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person for the purposes of exploitation” (United Nations, 2000) (Fowler, Jeana, Che Nicolette, and Fowler, Lindsey 2010).
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For example, one case of forced sex slavery is detailed by the following unsettling facts: “In November 2005, Gavril Dulghieru, a Moldovan living in London, was convicted for conspiracy to facilitate illegal immigration, misuse of stolen credit cards, forgery, money laundering and conspiracy to traffic for prostitution and sexual exploitation. The women he trafficked worked 20-hour shifts in brothels in Park Lane, Mayfair and Soho, were fed only one meal a day, and charged for the use of cutlery: They were forced to have sex with up to 40 men a day for as little as 10 British pounds (appx. $25 US) a time to pay off 20,000 British pounds (appx. $50,000 US) debts each - the price for which they were 'bought'. They were charged rent, and subjected to fines if they refused anal or unprotected sex or a client was not attracted to them... One 23-year-old described how she had to pay 300 British pounds per day (appx. $750 US) to live locked in a shared basement and her captors threatened to kill her family” (Cowan, 2005) (Davidson, 2006).
As a result, the treatment of Gavril as property, instead of being treated as a fellow human being, subordinated her to her male 'owner.' As such, she was emotionally, psychologically, and physically abused in ways that no man would have ever been subjected to by another man.
Furthermore, under the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution, our Congress said to the rest of the world, “No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws” (14th Amend. US Constitution). In the application of Feminist Legal Theory, there is a great dichotomy that has been used in the application of the 14th Amendment and the Mann Act of 1910 and its amendments. That
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dichotomy essentially is this, 1) enforcement of the violation of the rights of women in the United States and thus around the world, is subject to the enforcement of laws by men; and 2) Due to the broad scope of the 14th Amendment and the Mann Act, enforcement of any violations of these laws requires the full participation and cooperation of the alleged victims, which has been difficult to obtain due to their fears of reprisals on either themselves, other enslaved people, or even their family members at home.
Therefore, when a female victim is kidnapped, whether by force or by means of deception with the intention of enslaving her, it is usually a male that is the abuser, the beater, the rapist, the coercer of others. While it may have been a male, a female, a friend, a parent, a family member, a relative, a neighbor, or someone who lives in their town that sold them into slavery through deception, in most cases, the male business partner is the enforcer and the abuser of women. When a female slave victim does come forward or is rescued by some means or persons, it has been difficult for law enforcement to get a conviction due to refusal of female victims to relive their trauma and name their abusers as a result of this fear. A large part of this difficulty in obtaining a conviction is the failure of male law enforcement to treat crimes against women and crimes against men as being equally illegal. In their eyes, crimes against women must be proven before a charge is filed in most cases. In cases of sex crimes, the victim is medically invaded to obtain evidence, interrogated as if they are the criminal, and subjected to a level of disbelief by a majority of law enforcement officers. A majority of people make statements like, “She deserved it. Do you see how she is dressed? She was just asking to be raped. She had no business acting that way around guys. She must have wanted it to happen. She should have known that something like this might happen to her, and similar statements that erroneously blame the victim instead of her abuser. As a result, it is no wonder that only 1,362
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prosecutions have occurred in the United States under the Mann Act since its inception in 1910 (US Dept. of Justice, 2012).
On the other hand, had a man come forward and stated that he had been held as a slave in someone's basement for ten years and forced to commit sexual acts or be a labor slave, male law enforcement would have very little problem taking his word for it.
However, in our world's societies going back through time for millions of years, the adage of 'might make right' has been applied to the enforcement of laws around the world. Just as a wealthy person receives preferential treatment before the courts, crimes against men and property has higher priority than crimes against women does. This unequal treatment of the enforcement of laws that, for the most part, were enacted by men of conscience, with the clear intent of creating an equal and just society for all, goes directly against the grain of feminist legal theory as well as civil right and human rights laws around the world.
For example, there are two kinds of modern day slavery: 1) enslavement of a person by force or coercion against their will by another and 2) involuntary servitude, which is the economic enslavement of a person, which may be against their will, by means of creating an economic barrier to their obtaining their freedom. In the modern day sex slave trade, the female slaves make up a majority of the victims. They are enslaved are enslaved by means of force, coercion, the taking of documents such as passports, and by means of violence, or the threat of violence against themselves or others, and through economic bondage. The enslavement of men and children for their use as sex slaves is a low percentage which has been repeatedly disputed by multiple agencies but is generally held to be lower than 10 percent of those persons trafficked for sex. A majority of men and children that are trafficked are trafficked (sold into slavery) are used for labor. Many of these men and children may also be indentured servants that were sold to
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pay a debt (UNESCO, 2012).
For instance, “As for female sex slaves and female indentured servants, the story is a different one. They are kidnapped or duped into becoming a slave through job offers, and then dehumanized by their captors and their associates, into becoming prostitutes at bars, night clubs, massage parlors, even private homes, or subjected to labor under harsh conditions. They are treated as property and are subjected to many forms of abuse and humiliation that no animal or human being should ever be subjected to” (paraphrased) (Interpol Human Trafficking Fact Sheet, 2013). The fact that male slaves and children are seldom subjected to being used as sex slaves is a reason to pause and think. Source: (Polaris Project Wash. D.C., 2013)
Essentially, what makes a slave trafficker decide whether to convert a slave into a laborer or a sex slave? Both kinds of slaves are treated as subhuman. Both kinds of slaves are treated as property. So why are a majority of female slaves trafficked into the sex trade? The answer to that question is not a simple one, as it relies upon many factors: 1) the compliant nature of the enslaved person, 2) the desire of the enslaved person to escape, 3) the ability of the enslaved person to psychologically overcome being abused and humiliated, 4) the physical strength of the enslaved person, and 5) the physical and psychological ability of the enslaved person to overcome their abusers by any means possible and obtain their freedom. It is this last, but greatest factor that determines whether a slave becomes a sex slave or a laborer. For a slave owner to be permitted by a person to daily abuse and subject that person to the degradation and humiliation of being a prostitute or sex slave, the owner must overcome the slave's desire to take the slave owner's life.
Additionally, the element of repeated abuse, dehumanization, and rape that becomes the norm for a sex slave is akin to being raped hundreds of times a month. The victims are
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sometimes drugged, tortured, kicked, punched, and otherwise physically and psychologically abused to a point where they feel that their situation is hopeless. They are told that they must pay off their debt to their traffickers. This is a debt that is hardly ever paid off, as it would not be financially beneficial for the trafficker to set them free. UNESCO “emphasized the role of gender discrimination in increasing vulnerability to trafficking. Gender-based discrimination is still ongoing in many societies where social norms attribute a higher value to men’s role in society. Patriarchal norms drive the control over the female body, and are the very basis of trafficking of women for sexual exploitation” (UNESCO, 2012).
As a result, here are some of the reasons why sex slaves do not leave their abusers: a) Stockholm Syndrome, similar to Battered Women Syndrome- it's all my fault; b) brainwashing by their abuser; c) they are guarded; d) they are locked in 1) a closet, 2) a room, 3) indoors; e) fear of death, abuse, arrest; f) shame; g) self-blame; h) dependency upon their abuser; i) isolation; false promises; j) fear of law enforcement; k) lack of knowledge of social resources; and finally, l) hopelessness/resignation (Polaris Project 2013).
Consequently, another source of sex slaves is illegal immigration. As a result of the collapse of the former Soviet Union, young and even older women are lured into becoming illegal immigrants with the promise of obtaining jobs in another country. They are smuggled into one or more countries changing hands from one 'owner' to another as if they were cargo. In the European Union there are an estimated 880,000 victims of trafficking, and of these trafficking victims, 76% are victims of sexual exploitation, and 79% of overall victims are women and girls. There is a clear link between violence against women and trafficking in human beings. Gender equality considerations matter to understand these issues at many levels. In particular, a gender perspective better allows us to understand vulnerability, which is linked to the lack of
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educational and employment opportunities, and cultures of violence. Trafficking used to be a predominantly male crime, but increasingly women are getting involved, either as accomplices or as perpetrators. This must be acknowledged, because for some women the only way out of exploitation is to become exploiters themselves” (UNESCO, 2012).
In addition, it has been found that “The regions with the highest trafficking rates are those permeated by a culture of violence, and where the perceived societal role of men is highly elevated. In this culture, domestic violence is common, and abusers are protected by the elders of the community. Young women in these contexts do not want to experience the same lives as their mothers, and seek to find better opportunities for themselves” (UNESCO, 2012).
Furthermore, the Global Alliance Against Trafficking in Women (GAATW) notes that: “traffickers routinely violate the human rights enumerated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). Among those rights are: the right to be free from physical violence, including rape, sexual assault, domestic violence, forced prostitution, and trafficking (Article 3), freedom from slavery (Article 4), the right not to be tortured or submitted to cruel or degrading treatment (Article 5), the right to personal autonomy (Article 12), freedom of choosing residence and moving within own country (Article13.1), the right to safe and healthy working conditions (Article 23.1), the right to equal pay for equal work (Article 23.2) the right to just and favorable remuneration (Article 23.3) the right to enjoy psychological, physical and sexual health (Article 25) “(Lobasz, 2009).
Unfortunately, these United Nations articles mean very little when armed forces and contractors to the United Nations are themselves directly involved in violations of these very directives and are given legal immunity by the United Nations to protect these criminals and violators of human rights from criminal prosecution as a result of their participation in the
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kidnapping are sex slave trading of young women from war torn areas and the former Soviet states. In addition, this researcher has uncovered facts that corroborate the fact that the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and United States Armed Forces are both directly involved in the slave trade industry and/or the protection of the sex slave trade around the world. Finally, it is believed that the definition of what constitutes sex trafficking and therefore, a sex slave is in dispute among many government agencies throughout the world. As a result, the number of women that are trafficked for sexual purposes is difficult to determine as relatively few victims have come forward to charge their abusers. The prevalent constructions of human trafficking rely upon and reproduce gender and racial stereotypes that (1) discount women’s agency, (2) establish a standard for victimization that most trafficked persons cannot meet, and (3) unjustly prioritize the sexual traffic of white women over the traffic of women and men of all races who are trafficked for purposes including, but not exclusive to, the sex trade.
In conclusion, the United Nations has established a standard definition of sexual trafficking and sexual slavery. These definitions have been accepted by 150 countries around the world. However, under feminist legal theory, women cannot be provided equal protection under the law until: a) the standard for victimization is placed at a level that trafficked person can meet, and b) neither race, gender, age, or social status are considered as factors in an enforcement of sexual trafficking laws. Until there is a uniformity of the enforcement of the sex trafficking laws that are currently in force, the sex trafficking crime wave will continue to increase around the world. Enforcement of the laws must provide a means for protecting the victims from harassment, threats, violence, and coercion by their abusers and their associates.
Additionally, victims need to be provided a means to testify from a safe location where they are not required to be in the courtroom with their abusers. When the legal community can
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provide protection for the victims of sexual trafficking, safe transportation back to their homes, and counseling for their emotional and psychological injuries, then and only then will convictions for sex trafficking increase. Around the world, sex trafficking laws have been getting tougher, (England recently made sex trafficking a life sentence and New York just opened several Human Trafficking Courts in October 2013), but convictions have not increased due to the failure of the legal system to provide safety and security for the victims of these violent crimes. When those who have committed these criminally horrendous human rights violations are held accountable with death penalty sentences and the witnesses are treated as having the same human rights as their violators do, the prosecution rate of those involved in sex trafficking will increase.
Therefore, when the United States State Department, the United States Armed Forces, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), and the United Nations stop providing protection and financial support to the illegal sex trafficking industry around the world, sex trafficking prosecutions will increase even further. Only when these major players on the world stage take sex trafficking seriously, will women be valued as being equal to men around the world.


                                                              Bibliography


Cho, Seo Young, Dreher, Axel, and Neumayer, Eric. “Does Legalized Prostitution Increase Human Trafficking?” World Development Volume 43 January 2013, Pages 67–82. Web. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2012.05.023
Davidson, Julia O'Connell. “Will the Real Sex Slave Please Stand up?” Feminist Review 83 2006. Web. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3874380.
Ehrenreich, B., & Hochschild, A. R. (2003). Selling Sex for Visas: Sex Tourism as a Stepping- stone to International Migration. Global Woman: Nannies, Maids, and Sex workers in the
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New Economy (pp. 155,157). New York: Metropolitan Books. Print.
Eshete, Selam Legesse.The Relationship between Prostitution and Sex Trafficking
The Case of Sweden and Denmark. Lund University: Web. http://www.lunduniversity.lu.se/o.o.i.s?id=12683&postid=2302008.
Farley, Melissa, and Barkan,Howard. “Prostitution, Violence, and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder,”Women and Health 27, no. 3 (1998): 37-49. Web. http://www.fbi.gov/stats- services/publications/law-enforcement-bulletin/2013/March/prostitution-and-human- trafficking.
Fowler, Jeana, Che Nicolette, and Fowler, Lindsey. “Innocence lost: The rights of human trafficking victims.” Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 2 (2010) 1345–1349. Web.
Interpol. Interpol Fact sheet on Modern Day Slavery. (2013). Web. http://www.interpol.org/
Lobasz, Jennifer K. “Beyond Border Security: Feminist Approaches to Human Trafficking.” Security Studies, 18:319–344 (2009). Web. http://www.academia.edu/294799/Beyond_Border_Security_Feminist_Approaches_to_Human_Trafficking
The Polaris Project. Domestic Sex Trafficking: The Criminal Operations of the American Pimp. (2013). Web. http://www.dcjs.virginia.gov/victims/humantrafficking/vs/documents/Domestic_Sex_Tra fficking_Guide.pdf.
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Trafficking of women: Exploring effective policies and mechanisms to prevent it through education (2012). Web. http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/BSP/GENDER/PDF/Tra
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fficking_of women_conference_nov_2012.pdf
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